Instructions on brushing your teeth

  • Brush at least 2 times a day, preferably after every meal. If your meal includes something of low pH (acidic) such as alcohol, fruit, juices or coffee then 1 hour must pass, rinse with water and then brush.
  • Place the brush along the gum forming a 45 degree angle with your teeth. Move the brush gently in a forward - backward motion, repeating for all teeth.
  • Brush the inner surfaces of the teeth the same way.
  • Brush the flat surface of each tooth.
  • Use the tip of the brush to reach behind the front teeth.
  • Do not forget to brush your tongue.
How to brush your teeth

Which type of toothbrush is best?

The best brushes are those that have the brush bristles parallel. Also the stem of the toothbrush should be parallel and in the same plane with the bristles of the brush. In cases of small mouths or intense vomiting reflex is good for the back teeth a children's toothbrush to be used which is smaller than that adults' one.


How often should you replace your toothbrush?

  • You should replace your toothbrush when you see that the bristles of toothbrush and have been altered and not held to the same level. Usually this occurs in 2 to 3 months.
  • Always use a medium or soft toothbrush regarding hardness.
Bad toothbrushes

Instructions on how to floss

  • Take 45cm of dental floss.
  • Wrap the ends around your middle fingers, putting more floss in one finger.
  • Using your indexes and thumbs, guide the floss between your teeth.
  • Embrace with the floss the side of tooth to be cleaned.
  • Move the floss up and down between your teeth to remove the plaque.
  • Use a clean section of floss for each tooth.
Instructions on flossing
Instructions on flossing

Children's oral health


Milk teeth are the first generation teeth which appear in the mouth. They appear around the 6th month since birth and end at age 2 1/2 years (approximately). The deciduous teeth are twenty. Ten in the upper and ten in the lower jaw.

Are milk teeth useful?

The importance of milk teeth is big, for the proper development of the stomatognathic system of the child, chewing of food, communication, and appearance. Also - and this is something that many people ignore - they are absolutely necessary for maintaining the space for a proper eruption of permanent teeth.

For these reasons, the belief that milk teeth are not important, because they are replaced with new, is completely wrong.


Harmful oral habits

They are habits that cause imbalance in muscle forces oraly and influence functions (chewing, speech, sensory) and subsequently the development and formation of the mouth and face.

Such habits are finger suckling or use of a soother, oral breathing, the position of the tongue during swallowing, suckling the lower lip or tongue and biting of the lower lip, nails or hard objects.

Avoiding such habits can be achieved with education and by using specific dental equipment suggested by your dentist.


Do children get carries?

Of course. Especially those who eat a lot of sweets, candy and sugary drinks. Although these are not the only causes for caries.

The tooth structure determines the degree of their vulnerability to carries. The conformation of the first tooth starts in the third fetal month. So it is important that the diet of pregnant women is rich in proteins, vitamins (A, B, C, D) and minerals (calcium). Equally important is the diet of the children. The process continues until approximately 25 years of age, when the formation of the third molars (wisdom teeth) is completed.

Brushing of the teeth and the first visit to the dentist should begin as soon as possible. Depending on the age of the child, toothpaste recommend by your dentist should be used.

Dental carries

Dental carries


Dental caries is a disease of hard dental tissues characterized by demineralisation of the inorganic and organic tooth structure. It occupies the first place among the chronic human diseases. As it evolves, it destructs the teeth, making chewing difficult and alters aesthetically the oral cavity.

Cavities seriously threaten the teeth. If you do not treat it, it can damage your teeth, cause inflamation or even necrosis to the sensitive nerves located in the teeth and create abscess i.e. endodontic infection.

Abscess is treated only with endodontic therapy (root canal filing), surgery or tooth extraction.

Further complication of the disease is the extension of inflammation in periapical tissues and possible effects on the general health of the body especially in people with a medical history.

The occurrence of caries is linked to the simultaneous presence of three main causative agents:
  • Microorganisms in dental plaque that cause carries.
  • Carbohydrates in the oral cavity.
  • Resistance of the individual (microbial flora of the individual, orthodontic state and tooth structure).
Tooth with dental carries

What parts of the tooth are affected by caries?

First sites affected are the fissures and the grooves of the occlusal surface of the teeth. Change of color indicates tooth carries.

Besides the chewing surfaces, carries starts from interproximal surfaces of teeth, where the teeth touch.

Photo of teeth with dental carries

Does carries cause tooth cavities?

Carries does not cause any cavities immediately. The tissue damage caused by caries is irreversible when the development has reached the creation of the clinical picture of the cavity.

When the dentine material is dissolved, the outer walls of the enamel break and a cavity appears on the tooth. This is already an advanced stage, probably accompanied by pain.

Your dentist is able to recognize a carious tooth at a much earlier stage and prevent its evolution and the appearance of a cavity.

Stages of dental carries


Does carries appears on teeth with fillings?

Because many adults lacked the benefits of modern preventive dentistry (e.g. fluorosis) growing up, they often have a lot of dental fillings.

Over time these fillings are weakened and tend to break, mainly on the line between filling and tooth.

The bacterial plaque accumulates and is retained in tiny cracks creating acids and so beginning new carries.


How can I prevent carries?

  • Brush correctly at least twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste.
  • Use of dental floss and interdental brushes to clean interdental spaces.
  • Take care of your diet.
  • Consult your dentist if you need application of fluoride or dental sealants.
  • Visit your dentist for regular professional cleaning of your teeth and check every six months or more frequently if proposed by your dentist.


Gum diseases



Refers to inflammatory processes caused most of the times due to the existence microbial agents as a result of lack or misapplication of oral hygiene. The lesions are confined to the free and interdental gingiva and are reversible. Typical indicators for the presence of gingivitis is bleeding during brushing or automatically and redness of the gingiva.



In most cases is the development of gingivitis to a disease causing irreversible effects such as loss of gums, bone loss which holds the teeth and loss of teeth at an advanced stage.

With proper treatment we can stop the further development of periodontitis and preserve unaffected periodontal substances.



To avoid appearance of gum diseases it is necessary to:
  • Brush correctly at least twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste.
  • Use dental floss and interdental brushes to clean interdental spaces.
  • Take care of your diet and avoid excessive use of harmful substances (alcohol, nicotine, spices).
  • Visit your dentist for regular professional cleaning of your teeth and check every six months or more frequently if proposed by your dentist.

Maintenance instructions for prosthetic restorations


The prosthetic work that you carry in your mouth (either porcelain fixed bridge, or removable partial dentures) replace some natural teeth.

The materials used are biocompatible and are not altered in the course of time. However, we must not forget that the prosthesis supported by natural teeth, which are living organisms and are threatened by diseases, both in themselves (caries) and the tissues that support them (periodontal disease).

Indeed, the teeth supporting the prosthetic restoration are more at risk than other teeth as well beacuse they: (a) carry an increased bacterial load (the presence of foreign materials alter the microbial flora of the mouth), and (b) it is practically difficult to clean them.

Your own role in the long-term success of prosthetic work is particularly important!

To keep your natural teeth and therefore your prosthetic restorations healthy for many years, follow these guidelines:
  • Brush your teeth thoroughly 2-3 times daily, for at least 5 minutes at a time
  • Use special floss (super floss) daily, or interdental brushes, in accordance with the instructions given to you.
  • Use a fluoride solution after each brushing.
  • Avoid frequent consumption of sugary foods, especially between meals.
  • Avoid very hard foods (dragees, hard nuts, etc.) and generally exercising excessive pressure on the teeth, such as teeth grinding or clenching, holding pipes or other objects with his teeth, biting pens etc.
  • Do not forget your regular dental check (per semester or more often, according to the instructions given to you)

Endodontic treatment (root canal treatment)


The treatment itself is painless. Between visits it is likely to experience some discomfort caused by irritation of the area around the tooth due to the required handling during treatment, or resurgence of old contamination which existed but was in recession.

The discomfort varies and can be simple tooth sensitivity during chewing, feeling of heaviness or -rarely- swelling and pain in the affected region.

In this case, follow the instructions below:
  • Do oral rinses with warm salt water or chamomile. The liquid should be as warm as possible. Rinse for 5 minutes. Repeat every 1 - 2 hours.
  • If you notice the appearance of swelling, put extraoral ice wrapped in a towel, hold it there 5 to 10 minutes and repeat every 1 - 2 hours.
  • Complete the treatment with hot mouth washes at intervals.
  • If you feel pain use painkillers every 4 hours or 6 hours depending on the painkillers and the degree of pain.
  • Do not hesitate to contact your dentist for further explanations or advice.

Symptoms that may occur between visits are not worrying about the fate of the tooth, or affect the outcome of treatment.

Tooth extraction


Instructions before having a tooth extracted

  • Eat properly before going to your dentist.
  • To prevent pain, the patient will need to take a painkiller before surgery (not aspirin).
  • You should brush your teeth, especially in the area of the extraction because in the first 24 hours after extraction brushing the area of export order should be avoided not to affect the healing.
  • Individuals with a medical history must take chemoprophylaxis (antibiotics) before the extraction only after consultation with their dentist and physician.

Instructions after having a tooth extracted

For better healing and to prevent undesirable situations, please follow the instructions below:
  • Keep the cotton swab or gauze placed in the wound, in position, biting it for 30 minutes. If bleeding continues, place a new one for 60 minutes. To minimize further bleeding, avoid exercise and sit upright. If bleeding persists for more than 24 hours you must contact your dentist and visit the clinic.
  • If after the extraction swelling appears at the wound site, it is recommended to apply ice packs extraoral for one hour.
  • If postoperative pain occurs take painkillers (not aspirin) based on your dentist's instructions. Don't use antibiotics unless is prescribed by your dentist.
  • Avoid drinking liquids through a straw so as not to cause bleeding. Try to eat only soft foods warm or cold and not hot and hard. Alongside avoid chewing on the side of extraction. You will need to chew on the opposite half of the mouth from the area of extraction for the next three to 24hours.
  • Patients who are smokers, are recommended to avoid smoking for at least 12 hours after the extraction.
  • Do not rinse your mouth with water or various antiseptics. This increases the bleeding and delays the healing. After the first 24 hours you should rinse with salted water, 3 times daily for 4 - 5 days.
  • Avoid brushing the first 24 hours in the area of export. The rest of the mouth is brushed as normal.
  • Patients using dentures should not place them for 24 hours after extraction.
  • Remember that if you stand up suddenly, you could get dizzy. If you are lying down and about to get up, be sure to stay seated for one minute, before doing so.